was originally part of Captain George H. Monsarrat's Battery, "The Harding
Artillery," which was enrolled at Camp Harris, Nashville, May 15, 1861. On
November 20, 1861 it was reported as Company "B", Monsarrat's Battalion at
Camp Lookout, near Chattanooga. On December 9, 1861, Brigadier General W.
H. Carroll, at Knoxville, in reporting on the forces in East Tennessee,
listed Captain Monsarrat's Company near Knoxville, with E. Baxter as
Senior 1st Lieutenant, and Freeman as 2nd Lieutenant. Captain Monsarrat
was reported as Post Commandant at Knoxville, on December 27, 1861, and
the battery, at about this time, was divided into two parts, one of which
was Captain H. Baker's Battery, the other this battery under Captain Ed
Baxter, although it continued to be referred to as Monsarrat's Battery
until April, 1862.
28, 1861, Major General G. B. Crittenden, in reporting on the forces in
his command, listed: "Captain Monsarrat's Battery, consisting of ten
pieces, but the company is not yet filled up, the intention being to
augment it to 250 men." On January 24, 1862, General A. S. Johnston
instructed the Ordnance Department at Nashville: "You will send to General
Crittenden, by the Cumberland River, for Monsarrat's Battery, composed of
three 6-pound smooth bore and one 8-pound rifled cannon, a supply of
spherical shells for 6s and shells for the rifled guns." Evidently, some
time between these two dates, the l0-gun battery had been divided into two
23, 1862, Baker's Battery and Monsarrat's Battery were both listed in
Brigadier General W H. Carroll's Brigade, Crittenden's Division of the
Central Army, with Headquarters at Murfreesboro. The battery here reported
as Monsarrat's was evidently now commanded by Captain Baxter, for
Monsarrat was still at Knoxville in command of the post, and never had any
further connection with either of these two batteries.
On April 26,
1862, Baxter's Battery with 73 effectives was reported in Major General
Hardee's Corps, Colonel R. G. Shaver's Brigade at Corinth, Mississippi. On
June 30, still in Hardee's Corps, it was reported in Brigadier General S.
A. M. Wood's Brigade. Captain Baxter was assigned to post duty, and the
battery was organized as Captain Samuel L. Freeman's Battery on July 20,
1862. Company reports state it was engaged in shelling the enemy at Battle
Creek, near Chattanooga, August 27-28; and dislodged and routed the enemy
in an engagement at Stevenson, Alabama on August 31, as part of a force
under Colonel McKinstry, 32nd Alabama Regiment.
September, 1862, the battery received 50 recruits from Loudon County. On
September 21, Major General Sam Jones ordered Freeman's Battery to march
to Tullahoma, to be under the command of Colonel H. Maury, with the
purpose of producing an impression that a force was moving on Nashville
from Chattanooga. On October 4, Colonel Maury was directed to move up to
Murfreesboro, and Freeman's Battery to La-Vergne. On October 9, Freeman's
Battery was ordered to report to Brigadier General N. B. Forrest, and it
remained with his command until after the Battle of Chickamauga.
5, the battery was with Forrest in his raid into the outskirts of
Nashville, being stationed first on the Nolensville Pike, and later
between the Franklin and Nolensville Pikes, where it did effective work in
shelling the enemy troops on the pikes. General Forrest reported: "Great
credit is due Captain Freeman and his officers and men for their coolness
and discretion during this engagement."
An inspection report dated November 11 showed Freeman's Battery armed with
two 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, bronze, and stated that
it required new harness. On November 14, Freeman's Battery, with six guns,
was reported with Forrest six miles from Nashville.
accompanied Forrest in his raid into West Tennessee the last half of
December, and was under his immediate command in his dash into Trenton, on
December 20. It was with Colonel Dibrell in the Battle of Parker's Cross
Roads, December 31, 1862, and Colonel Dibrell spoke of the effective work
of a 12-pound howitzer, manned by Sergeant Nathan Baxter, of Freeman's
Middle Tennessee, it was with Forrest in the capture of Thompson's Station
on March 5, and of Brentwood on March 25. But Freeman's exploits came to
an end April 19, 1863, on the Lewisburg Pike near Franklin. A Federal
report stated: "Freeman's Battery was taken and destroyed by chopping it
to pieces. He, one lieutenant, and several men were killed; two
lieutenants and 29 men captured. In other words, the battery was defunct."
Confederate reports of the engagement state that the attacking troops were
from the 4th United States Cavalry. They are in practical agreement with
the list of casualties; Lindsey's Annals states: "As the enemy did not get
any of the pieces off the field, Lieutenants Douglass and Crudup took
charge of the battery and had it prepared for service, the wheels having
been hacked up in the effort to cut the battery down." A. L. Huggins was
one of the lieutenants captured in this engagement, but when he was
exchanged he became captain of the company, and served as such until the
end of the war.
report was over-optimistic in stating that the battery was "defunct," for
on May 10, 1863, it reported four officers, 99 men present for duty, 110
present, 181 present and absent. Following the withdrawal to Chattanooga
of Bragg's Army in July, the battery was stationed at Kingston, Tennessee
on August 3, 1863.
Battle of Chickamauga, September 19-20, Huggins' and Morton's batteries
were attached to Colonel George G. Dibrell's Brigade. Huggins' Battery was
sent to the relief of Maney's Brigade, and General Forrest reported; "The
conduct of the officers and men of the battery deserves special mention.
They kept up a constant and destructive fire upon the enemy until they
were within 50 yards of the guns, getting off the field with all their
pieces, notwithstanding the loss of horses."
high regard for the battery is evidenced by the fact that when he applied
for transfer to West Tennessee he asked for either "Freeman's" or Morton's
Battery as part of the minute expeditionary force which was to accompany
him. Morton's Battery was the one assigned to this duty, and Huggins'
Battery was placed in Brigadier General G. C. Wharton's Division,
Lieutenant General Long-street's Corps, for Longstreet's invasion of East
Tennessee. On December 10, it was in Brigadier General F. C. Armstrong's
Division of Major General Joseph Wheeler's Cavalry Corps, but reported as
detached in East Tennessee. On December 31, it was reported in Brigadier
General John T. Morgan's Division of Major General William T. Martin's
Cavalry Corps, but on January 31, 1864, it was once again reported in
Armstrong's Division. At this time it reported five officers, 86 men
present for duty, 101 present, and 141 present and absent, with four
pieces of artillery.
29, the report showed four officers, 77 men present for duty, 92 present,
110 present and absent. On April 1, it was with Dibrell's Brigade, en
route from East Tennessee to Dalton, Georgia. On May 5, at Dalton,
Georgia, it was attached to Brigadier General John H. Kelly's Division.
On June 30,
Huggins', Ramsey's, and White's Tennessee Batteries, Ferrell's Georgia,
and Wiggins' Arkansas Batteries were reported in a battalion commanded by
Lieutenant Colonel F. H. Robertson, forming the Artillery Reserve for
Wheeler's Cavalry Corps, and remained in this battalion through August 31,
1864. In August the battery accompanied General Wheeler in his raid into
Tennessee, and returned with Wheeler to do what was possible in impeding
General Sherman's march to Savannah. Captain Huggins was placed on
Brigadier General John K. Jackson's Staff at Savannah, Georgia, as Chief
of Artillery, and Lieutenant Nat Baxter took command of the battery. Upon
the evacuation of Savannah, Captain Huggins rejoined the battery, and fell
back with it through South Carolina to North Carolina.
31, 1865, a report of the forces in Hardee's Department of South
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, showed Huggins, White's, Ramsey's
Tennessee, and Wiggins' Arkansas Batteries in Major James Hamilton's
Artillery Battalion. The battery was surrendered as part of General Joseph
E. Johnston's Army and paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina May 1, 1865